Regeneration refers to shifting to renewable energy and materials.
Bioconomy: Utensils and packaging from plants, transforming waste into edible protein through feeding crickets
- Blue economy: Ocean waves power generation, hydroponics-based regenerative growing of plants and fisheries, sustained with renewable biogas and solar energy
- Industrial ecology: Using waste-to-energy plants for co-generation of heat and renewable energy, residues and chemicals
Sharing denotes the sharing and recycling economy as well as prolonging the life of products.
- Leasing Society and Tele-Living, Servitization– Whirlpools, e-Trottinettes, Sharing of electric vehicles
- Collaborative consumption: Online free reuse groups Freecycle
- Collaborative creation: The makers’ movement, co-creation and sharing of 3D printing designs
Optimization refers to increased efficiency, waste minimization and utilization of information and communications technology (ICT).
- Smart Cities, Blockchain and AI: sensor-generated data for optimization of waste collection, electricity and traffic maintenance; drone-powered agricultural optimization, collecting data from humanitarian and post-disaster operations to optimize interventions
- Ecology of things: using RFID, drones and sensors to optimize the bioeconomy
- Industrial Ecology: Cogeneration
Looping is defined as closing the technical and biological material cycles.
- Waste prevention: usage of biowaste for fertilizers and biodegradable packaging; creating novel products from recycled plastics
- Repurposing: using marine litter such as bottles stuffed with sand instead of bricks for social housing or transforming ghettos in global south
- Downcycling: using end of life clothing for emergencies, industrial cloth for cleaning, fitting of upholstery, thread for new clothes; using residue from waste-to-energy plants as a substitute for sand in concrete; using the metal from end of life vehicles for construction of wind turbines and electric bikes
- Repair economy: Performance contracting, Fairphone, Repair Cafe Centers
Virtualization deals with direct and indirect de-materialization
- Reverse logistics: virtual markets, e-books, collection of parts for refurbishment through extended producer responsiblity
Exchange refers to the utilization of novel materials and technologies
- Carbon Sequestration: production of sustainable biofuels through carbon capture, substitution of sand in concrete with waste residues and ashes